Abstract: This review presents recent advances regarding biomass-based nanomaterials, focusing on their surface interactions. Plant biomass-based nanoparticles, like nanocellulose and lignin from industry side streams, hold great potential for the development of lightweight, functional, biodegradable, or recyclable material solutions for a sustainable circular bioeconomy. However, to obtain optimal properties of the nanoparticles and materials made thereof, it is crucial to control the interactions both during particle production and in applications. Herein we focus on the current understanding of these interactions. Solvent interactions during particle formation and production, as well as interactions with water, polymers, cells and other components in applications, are addressed. We concentrate on cellulose and lignin nanomaterials and their combination. We demonstrate how the surface chemistry of the nanomaterials affects these interactions and how excellent performance is only achieved when the interactions are controlled. We furthermore introduce suitable methods for probing interactions with nanomaterials, describe their advantages and challenges, and introduce some less commonly used methods and discuss their possible applications to gain a deeper understanding of the interfacial chemistry of biobased nanomaterials. Finally, some gaps in current understanding and interesting emerging research lines are identified.