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Black Bioinks from Superstructured Carbonized Lignin Particles

Bruno D. Mattos, Noora Jäntti, Sergei Khakalo, Ya Zhu, Arttu Miettinen, Joni PArkkonen, Alexey Khakalo, Orlando J. Rojas, Mariko Ago

Abstract: A renewable source of carbon black is introduced by the processing of lignin from agro-forestry residues. Lignin side streams are converted into spherical particles by direct aerosolization followed by carbonization. The obtained submicron black carbon is combined with cellulose nanofibers, which act as a binder and rheology modifier, resulting in a new type of colloidal bioink. The bioinks are tested in handwriting and direct ink writing. After consolidation, the black bioinks display total light reflectance (%R) at least three times lower than commercial black inks (reduction from 12 to 4%R). A loading of up to 20% of nanofibers positively affects the cohesion of the dried bioink (1 to 16 MPa), with no significant reduction in light reflectance. This is a result of the superstructuring of the ink components, which disrupts particle packing, intensifies colloidal interactions, introduces light absorption, and non-reflective multiple scattering.


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